Memos and Other Non‐Citation Formats
It can be confusing for students when a professor ask for memos or provide for fixed formats that do not call for citations. Perhaps the professor specifically excludes citations. Here are some simple guides:
- If the instructor does not say, assume citations are required.
- If citations are excluded, ask whether a bibliography is expected.
- If a bibliography is excluded, ask whether there is to be any documentation at all as to the source of material.
- Write down the guidance and follow it to the letter.
- Avoid direct quotations where there is no citation and especially where there is no documentation of source material. If using direct quotation in this context, provide attribution in the text.